The general screen and processes of the UNFCCC and the adopted Kyoto Protocol have been criticized by some for failing to meet their stated targets for reducing carbon dioxide emissions (the main cause of the increase in global temperatures in the 21st century).  In a speech in Alma Mater, Todd Stern, the U.S. climate chief, said: "Climate change is not a conventional environmental issue... It covers virtually every aspect of a state`s economy, making countries nervous before growth and development. It is an economic problem, because it is an environmental problem. He added that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is a multilateral body that deals with climate change and can be an ineffective system for implementing international policies. Given that the framework covers more than 190 countries and negotiations are conducted by mutual agreement, small groups of countries can often block progress.  The Financial and Administrative Framework Agreement (FAFA), signed in 2003, forms the overall framework for the contributory agreements signed between the EU and UNDP. It facilitates administrative cooperation by standardising contractual terms and committing to rely on UN audit, control, accounting and contracting procedures. This agreement applies to all directorates-general of the European Commission and all United Nations contracting organisations. Since then, FAFA has been readjusted twice, in 2014 and 2018, to incorporate changes into the respective regulatory frameworks of organizations. You can find the latest version here. In addition to the Kyoto Protocol (and its amendment) and the Paris Agreement, the parties to the convention agreed to other commitments at the conferences of the parties to the UNFCCC.
These include the Bali Action Plan (2007),  the Copenhagen Agreement (2009),  on the Cancun Agreements (2010),  and the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (2012).  The ultimate goal of the two treaties is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that prevents people from dangerously intervening in the climate system. In 2010, governments agreed on the need to reduce emissions to limit global temperature rise to less than 2 degrees Celsius. The Kyoto Protocol runs until 2020 and the parties to the UNFCCC are preparing for stronger action after that date, including a new universal legal agreement to combat climate change beyond 2020, in which all will contribute their best and will all be able to enjoy together the benefits of success. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, in force in March 1994, was ratified by all 33 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The aim of the agreement is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that prevents dangerous anthropogenic disturbances in the climate system. This agreement provides a general framework for intergovernmental efforts to address the challenges posed by climate change. The lack of significant progress over the past 18 years and the achievement of effective political contracts between the parties to reduce CO2 emissions has led some countries, such as the United States, to refrain from ratifying the most important UNFCCC agreement, the Kyoto Protocol, largely because the treaty did not encode developing countries.
, which now includes the largest CO2 emitters.